Soil Growing FAQ
What size container should I use?
The basic rule of thumb is, the larger the plant, the larger the container should be. Roughly this translates to one gallon of container space for each foot of plant height. So if your plant is two feet high, it should be in a two gallon container. However, it is better to transplant from smaller to larger containers than to go straight into a large container from the start, the reason being that transplanting provides for a fuller, more robust root mass and root distribution within the container. If a plant is started in a large container to begin with, it will shoot out a “tap root” down to the bottom and only fill the bottom of the container up with roots, instead of filling in all the soil in the larger container.
How much soil will I need for my garden?
Approximately 4 Liters of soil per gallon of container space. So, for a 3G container, you would need 12 L of soil. Just multiply this number by your number of containers to find the total. (20 3G containers would equal 240L of soil) Then check the number of liters contained in the bag of the soil product you wish to use (this varies by bag size) and do the math. If you are blending the soil with perlite, as most people do, add up the amount of perlite and soil then do the math again.
How often should I water?
A common mistake made by new growers is overwatering. Here’s the rule of (green) thumb: when watering, always make sure that your medium goes from wet to barely moist before watering again. This can take 3-4 days for young plants or plants in larger containers. By doing this you ensure that the soil will contain adequate amounts of oxygen for healthy root growth. The more water in the soil, the less air there will be, and vice versa. Too much water drowns the roots! on the other hand, at no time should you wait until the plants are wilting from lack of water.
A good way for beginners to get the hang of proper watering technique is to fill up a container with soil and never water it; this will give you a good idea of how much a container weighs when it is dry. You can then use this to compare with other containers (containing plants) that have been watered and are drying out. Lift both containers (the dry and the wet) and feel how light the wet one is; you want it to be pretty close to the dry one before watering again. Another way to be precise is to get a deep penetrating moisture meter.
How often should I flush?
Flushing is an integral part of growing healthy happy plants, removing any excess salts that have built up over time. Flushing will also help restore an even CEC (Cation Exchange Capability) balance to the soil. Unflushed soil can hold onto salts and release them back into the root zone over time, or attract more salts to the salts that have already begun to form, promoting an ever-downward spiral towards “nutrient lockout.” Lockout can be easily avoided by flushing from time to time. Usually, the method of “Feed, feed, then flush” is applicable for soil growers. This breaks down to weekly flushing, because most soils need water every other day as the plants start growing faster and faster.
For even more efficient flushing, you may choose to use any of several flushing solutions which are designed to wash away excess nutrient salts and (if you are nearing harvest time) to allow a clean and clear flavor to come through. Many people use these either once a month or just during the transition from vegetative to the bloom.
What should the pH of my soil be?
pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. The pH scale ranges from 0 pH (very acidic) to 14 pH (highly alkaline.) A basic, neutral solution is numerically equal to 7, as does pure water, indication that it is neither alkaline nor acidic, but neutral. Different nutrients may be absorbed by plants at different pH levels.
The ideal pH range is different for different plants, but the general range for plant survival is between 5.0 and 7.5. Any lower and delicate plant tissues can be burned; higher and some nutrients may precipitate out of solution, making them unavailable for uptake. It is also important to consider the fact that different nutrients can only be absorbed at certain pH levels. The optimum pH range seems to be between 5.8 and 6.5. If you want to get real fancy, tweak the pH of your solution to allow more nitrogen in the growth phases and then readjust during the bloom phase for more phosphorous uptake.
I have been hearing a lot about “beneficial organisms.” What are these?
There are countless beneficial microscopic organisms which perform a vast variety of functions, ranging from the breakdown of nitrogen into usable forms, to cleaning the roots, to warding off destructive microbial pathogens. These good microbes also activate, enrich and stimulate the roots, helping to create beautiful fuzzy white root growth like you have never seen before and thus increasing your overall yield. We feel that when growing plants in soil it’s absolutely essential to colonize the roots with a wide variety of beneficial microbes. Towards that end, we sell products that we have personal experience with and really believe in.
My plants are falling over, how do I hold them?
In soil, you sometimes have the option of using stakes driven down into the soil to support your plants, but that depends on the size of the container; for smaller containers, this is impractical. Depending on your growing setup, we can recommend trellis netting, stretched across the canopy (top) of the plants, or yo-yos, which are little spirals of spring-tensioned fish line with hooks on both ends; secure the top hook to an overhead trellis or hook attached to the ceiling, pull the yo-yo down and attach the lower hook to your plant. The spring tension will hold up the sagging branches!
What does perlite do, and why do I need it?
Perlite looks like tiny, white, crystallized popcorn kernels. Perlite is not a trade name but a generic term for naturally occurring siliceous rock. When quickly heated to about 1600°F, the crude rock pops in a manner similar to popcorn as the water inside vaporizes and creates countless tiny bubbles which account for its amazing light weight and other exceptional physical properties. Perlite combines well with almost any base soil mix. It will help aerate the soil and improves drainage and oxygen content.; mix at a 50-50 perlite to soil ratio.
What makes Fox Farm/Ocean Forest so special?
Fox Farm products have been known as the “Microbrewery” of premium plant foods and soil mixes. Their fertilizers are built around the use of proprietary earthwork castings, nature’s finest soil amendment. They also add fish meal, crab meal, shrimp meal, calcium carbonate, rock phosphate, kelp and more to create a well-balanced diet for plants. Although not entirely “organic,” Fox Farm soils are mostly organic with no chemical s added. Anything that is not technically organic is at least ALL NATURAL. For example, even though rock phosphate comes from pure mineral sources (shaved from a mined “rock”), it is still not technically “organic” because it is not carbon based (from life);however we still consider it as organic. Fox Farm’s Ocean Forest soil mix is a nutritious blend of Pacific Northwest fish, crab meal, shrimp meal, and plenty of those awesome earthworm castings. It is light in texture and well-aerated. Fox Farm has also added composted forest humus and selected peat mosses to create the optimum organic medium for your babies. Ocean Forest is ideal for greenhouse applications, as well as indoor/outdoor plantings.
Why should I grow with organics?
While organic fertilizers and soils deliver their nutrients to plants much slower than mineral-based fertilizers, there are some definite benefits of going “natural” (even though mineral nutes are also made from natural materials). Plants grown with organics tend to deliver a richer taste and aroma due to the extremely complex proteins and microbial organisms living in the rhizosphere (root zone). And, if you’re into the Vegan thing, organic nutes will satisfy your Green ideals.
What is your favorite soil to use?
See the above section on Fox Farm soils. Some other good read-to-use ones are roots organics, a yummy blend of coco fiber and bat guano, earthworm castings, fish bone meal, mycorrhizae bacteria, and other stuff plants love. You can even grow your plants right in the bag; simply poke holes in the bottom, cut open the top, and insert plant!
I have water leaking from the bottoms of my pots and making a mess, what can I do?
You could get vinyl saucers to put under each pot, or get a big grow tray with all containers sitting inside-have water drain from tray back to central reservoir.
What is the main difference between soil & hydro? Will I get the same yield?
Soil versus hydro, the eternal debate rages on! It’s been said that when growing hydroponically, one must feed the plant, and with soil growing on e must feed the soil. For the most part, hydroponics growers use “neutral” growing media; that is, media that contains zero nutrients and is mainly there for supporting the plants’ root systems. With these media, the grower must supply all the nutrients the plants require, via a liquid solution. In soil, there are built in nutrients that the plants can use, which can be supplemented by the grower. Generally, plants grown hydroponically will grow much faster and yield heavier than those grown in soil, simply because the nutrients are delivered directly to the roots in a very efficient manner, whereas the soil-grown plants’ roots must search out the nutrients contained in the soil the old-school way. But, soil can be a bit less maintenance-intensive and more “user-friendly” than hydro, especially for new growers.
Soil Growing Info
Primer on Soil Science
First, lets look at some basics of plant nutrition. All plants need the following 16 elements: Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus(P), Potassium(K), Calcium(Ca), Magnesium(Mg), Sulfur(S),Iron(Fe), Manganese(Mn), Boron (B), Molybdenum(Mo), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn), and Chlorine(Cl). Plants also need Carbon(C), Oxygen(O), and Hydrogen(H), which are derived from air and water in the plant’s environment. The nutrients C, H, O N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S are needed in large amounts and are referred to as the macronutrients. Fe, Mn, B, Mo, Cu, Zn, and Cl are needed in small amounts and are the micronutrients. The soil can either be ammended with these elements or the nutrients can be directly applied within a watering solution (or a combination of both.)
Within the soil medium there is a complex relationship that develops between the roots of the plant, the medium, the nutrients it holds, and the microbes living within its rich kingdom. In order to get a handle on how these subjects relate to each other and to the plant we will first need to undersand a few concepts. For now, we will focus on how the medium retains plant essential nutrients and interacts with the root zone to help nurish the plant.
First off, lets discuss pH within a solution of nutrient and within the soil itself. pH is defines as a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution or a medium. In soil, pH governs the availability and uptake potential of the various minerals by the roots of the plants. We have two factors to be aware of: the pH of the nutrient solution used to water the soil, as well as the pH of the soil itself. For most purposes a pH of 6.2-6.7 is ideal. A pH of 6.5 is the average. If you grow plants consistently outside of this average, they will develop deficiencies and appear sick or ill. Both the nutrient solution pH and the pH of the meium itself need to be monitored. Periodic flushing of the medium is advised.
The other important concept to grasp in soil scientce is cation exchange capacity(CEC). CEC is the capacity of a soil for ion exchange of positively charged ions between the soil and the soil solution. Cation exchange capacity is used as a measure of fertility, and nutrient retention capacity. CEC values of a medium adjust the pH absorption values of a medium. The relative CEC also tells us how well the soil holds onto given nutrients and slowly releases them to the root zone as teh relative pull within that zone changes as the needs of the plant nutritional requirements change and adjust. “Peat”-based soils have higher CEC values compared with Rockwool or Hydroton Grow Rocks. THis means that we need to be aware of the overall TDS(or ppms) within the soil/ medium more so than Low CEC mediums like Rockwool or Hydroton or even to some degree other organic mediums such as Coco-Coir based mixes.
We highly suggest you get some tools to make checking and recording you pH and TDS(ppm) levels much easier. There are a variety of meters available for testing the feeing solution, the “run-ff” coming out from the containers, and the pH and moistureof the medium itself. At the very least you will need a pH Shaker Tester.
- Dont Overwater your Plants! When Watering always make sure that your medium goes from wet to barely moist before watering again. This can take up to 3-4 days for young plants in larger containers. This provides for a good amount of Oxygen held within the media. The more water you have, teh less air there witll be within the media and vice versa. At no time should you wait until the plants are wilting from lack of water. A good way for beginers to get the hang of this is to fill up a container wiht soil and never water it; this will give you a good idea of how much a container weighs when it is dry. You can then use this container to compare with other containers (with plants contained within) that have been watered and are drying out. Hold both the containers (dry & wet) and see how light the “wet” one is- you want it to be pretty close to the dry one before watering again. Another way to be precise is to get a deep penetrating moisture meter.
- Container Dynamics:Make sure smaller plants are held within smaller containers. The larger a plant gets, the larger the container should be. In general make sure you transplant from a smaller container to a larger one at least one time within your grow. Many “seasoned” growers will do at least two transplants wihtin one complete grow.The reason for this transplanting is that it provides for a fuller, more robuse root mass and root distribution within the container. If a plant is started in a large container to begin with it will shoot out a tap root down to the bottom and only fill the bottom of the container with roots-instead of filling in the entire space filled with soil in the larger container. In general, use 1G of soil for every foot you will want to grow your plant tall by the end.
- Advanced method for Transplanting/Re-Planting- Start off with clone in plug, transplant into a 4x4x4 pot in Light Warrior mix feed with light nutrient solution, establish a root structure preferably under a T5 lighting. Keep in pot typically for one to two weeks before blend. Let plant veg for another week or two; then, transplant into final container (usually 3-5G). Give plant four to seven days in the final container before flippin photo period (to 12 hrs on/12hrs off) into fruit/flower. Make sure never to pack soil too tightly!
3.Fertilizing Frequency- In general, it is good for beginners to follow the “Feed, Feeed, FLUSH” Schedule. This means that a grower should water their plants with Nutrients/Additives, then wait for them to dry out as in Rule #1 above. When the pots are barely moise- Feed again with Fertilizer (Nutrients/Additives). The following watering (after the pots have gone from “wet” to “barely moist” ) make sure to FLUSH with 3 times your normal watering. This time just use pH balanced water and no nutrient. We use 3x normal watering to flush out any salts or excess nutrient that might have collected in the soil.
- Advanced Fertilizer Application-When the grower checks his run-off he is able to determine if the medium is too rich with nutrients or too weak. The way in which a grower can check his runoff solution is to lift up the container and collect the run-off coming out the bottom into a glass. Then, using a ppm (TDS) meter one can check to see if the ppms are higher than the ppms that were mixed into the feeding solution. (Ex. The feed is too hot, now the grower can flush the plants and lower the ppms.) Using this method provides for optimum nutrition and growth and gives the grower more overall control
4.Line bottom of pots for best drainage-Always make sure to line bottoms of containers with hydroton or silica based stones/rocks to make sure roots do NOT get “water-logged” and will always get best drainage. Fill in 1-2 inches of Rocks at bottom.
5. Add Aerating Substance to the Soil-Perlite, Pumice, etc. will all work to aerate the soil. THis will increase the overall available oxygen within the container. It will also allow a more thorough draining. Aeration to the root zone is key to increasing the overall growth rates and yields. In soil, the old adddage still rings true: “More Roots, More Fruits.” In general, very few “out of the bag” mediums contain enough aerating substances like perlite. You should really have a 40-50% Perlite to Soil ratio. When in doubt add more perlit to the mix.
6. Make sure you use Beneficial Microbes-Beneficial microbes do many amazing things for your root zone and your plant. We cannot speak highly enough about these beautiful little creatures. Once they have colonized the soil and the root zone, they will help with nutrient uptake, they will synthesize hormones and enzymes, grow out the overall root zone and root mass, create many micro-hairs which increase the overall quality of the roots, and lastly help to protect the root zone against pathogen microbe attacks that can lead to root rot.
Watering a Soil Garden
Watering a soil garden can be done in a number of different ways. If the garden is small and the budget is low, a one gallon container mixed with nutrients and the pH’d to the proper level can work out really nicely. If the garden is larger however, filling up a watering container/bottle can get rather tedious. At this point gardeners either employ a pump connected to some tubing and a inline valve or a watering want or construct a Drip Line which feeds to waste over a tray and two reservoirs. If using a pump and tubing and feeding each plant individually, growers will also either use a large tray to house multiple sets of plants underneath or small vinyl saucers underneath each plant.
A Drip System set up to run “Drain to Waste” can maximize efficiency and minimize tedious work within your grow space. This allows a grower to concentrate more on the plants themselves. (More time can be spent on training or staking plants, foliar spraying, fighting off pests or diseases, and in general provides for a better growing environment.) Plants can still be moved around wihtin the tray as needed.
In general a Drip System can be set up with one tray (2×2, 2×4,3×3,4×4,3×6, or 4×8) and two reservoirs (one for feed, one for waste water collection.) The rest of the parts for the drip line are illustrated to the right. The main “1/2″ Drip Line” which feeds all the 1/4″ Drip lines and Drip Stakes, is connected to a submersible pump contained within the “Feed Reservoir.” Any number of pots, of a variety of different sizes can be used within a given grow tray. This affords the gardener a great deal of variable control and efficiency within the garden.
Preparing your Growing Container
We suggest filling the bottom of the pot 2-3 inches with Hydroton for easy drainage. We suggest feeding either Liquid Karma or Nirvana to new transplants. Either of these products will ease the transition into the new medium with B-vitamins, and will nourish the plant with micronutrients and hormones. Lastly we also suggest stating cuttings/ clones out in a more appropriate seedling mix of Light Warrior from Fox Farm. It is very soft on newly started plants. From this Light Warrior mix we suggest transplanting into Oceans Forest. Always make sure you see clean, happy new growth before fertilizing.
Foliar Spraying is an excellent way to deliver larger molecules directly into the plant. The root zone is protected (internally) by a protective lining called the casparian strip which prevents larger molecules(carbohydrates and some hormones, etc.) from getting through and into the interior of plant cells where they can be helpful. By Foliar Spraying these growth promoters can be easily and directly absorbed.
Fox Farm Nutrients
FoxFarm nutrients have been known as the Microbrewery of Premium Plant Foods and Soil Mixes. Their fertilizers are built around the use of Fox Farms proprietary earthworm castings, nature’s finest soil amendment. They also add Fish Meal, Crab mean, Shrimp Meal, Calcium Carbonate, Rock Phosphate, Kelp and more to create a well balanced diet for plants to take in. Although not entirely “organic” FoxFarm is mostly organic with no chemicals added. Anything that is not technically organic is at least ALL NATURAL. There are three pieces to their formula-Grow Big for Vegetative Growth, Big Bloom and Tiger Bloom to promote heavy yields full of lush flavor and entcing aromas.
Grow Big: is a fast acting, water-soluble fertilizer for lush vegetative, compact growth. It encourages sturdier, healthier stems and leaves, but also provides enough nutrients and trace minerals to create the kind of healthy branching that you’ll need later in the season for more abundant blooms.
Big Bloom: is a live culture of vitamins, amino acids, noatural growth hormones, enzymes, and beneficial organic microbes. Our special, micro-brewed formula incorporates earthworm castings, bat guano and other natural and organic amendments. Rock phosphate helps transfer energy from one part of the plant to another, which means bigger fruit and more fragrant flowers.
Tiger Bloom: is an ultra-potent, fast-acting, high-phosphorus fertilizer, to be combined with Big Bloom for even larger healthier, fuller yields.
Earth Juice Nutrients
The Earth Juice line of organic fertilizers are derived from 100% natural, and organic ingredients. Earth Juice stimulates vigorous growth and provide abundant yields, while improving the soil. They are highly concentrated, easy to use, and contain no salt-building chemicals or hidden NPK boosting synthetics. There are no hidden NPK boosting synthetics such as urea, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate, precipitated bone mean, muriate of potash, or phosphates. Earth Juice doesnt add any chlorine or use formaldehyde. Earth Juices contains no artificial additives or colors. Earth Juice encourages microbes and improves soil consistency.
Earth Juice Grow is an all organic OMRI listed Nitrogen formulation for vigorous green growth. Earth Juice Bloom is a non nitrogen phosphorus solution which is used to promote larger fruit, buds, flowers, and vegetables. It is also OMRI certified. Earth Juice Catalyst is a premium organic additive that encourages compact branching, stimulates optimal fruiting sites, and triggers early yields. Along with these 3 core ingredients there are two other additives:Micro Blast- a liquid micronutrient formula to be used to prevent and correct micronutrient deficiencies; and META-K, a natural potassium-based formulation for maturing, fruiting, and flowering plants that require more potassium.
Along with these excellent fertilizers (and the recipe below) we suggest using Hygrozyme for an overall enzymatic pick-me-up. Also, try adding hormones, proteins and enzymes from the sea. We also suggest a Bloom STimulant or two like Budswel or Final Bloom. Humic and Fulvic do wonders for plants in soil. Advanced mychorizzae mix, and Vermi-T 30,000 microbe solution for major infusion of beneficials. Finish off the Bloom cycle with a carbohydrate/enzymee foliar spray which when used in conjunction wiht Grand Finale to maximize the flavor, oil content and aroma of your final product.
Earth Juice Recipe
Below is an age old recipe that if followed correctly, will produce amazing results.
1-2 TBSP Grow
1 tsp Bloom
1 tsp Catalyst
- Make sure to play with the Grow amounts. You want to start off slow and build it up. If a plant is vigorously growing in the Vegetative stage you can bump the Grow up to 3 TBSP, but make sure to cut out the Meta-K and MicroBlast and watch for burning.
- Every fourth watering add 1tsp of Meta-K and 1tsp of MicroBlast to the mix.
Early Bloom Phase
1 TBSP EJ Grow
1 TBSP EJ Bloom
1 tsp Catalyst
Mid Bloom Phase (beginning of week 4 of Bloom)
1-2 TBSP EJ Bloom
1 tsp EJ Catalyst
- Watch plants and raise Bloom Nutrient up to 2 TBSP/Gal. Watch for burning.
- One time throughout the Bloom Phase, around week 4-5, Add MicroBlast and Meta-K each at 1 tsp/Gal.
Notes about Earth Juice
To finish these plants we suggest doing a two week Flush. You can add any organic additive from your list of additives that you have chose. They will only enhance the flavor. We do NOT suggest adding any Bloom nutrient or catalyst.
Increasing Fulvic Acid to full strength 2 weeks before finishing then just flushing with water and other additives for the final week.
Many people like to bubble Earth Juice for 1-2 days before use. This can work out rather well for experienced growers and lets the microbes contained with multiply and activate the entire solution.
These are some of the best nutrients on the gardening market as well as some of the most complicated. The line contains the entire range of nutrient additives and it can be overwhelming to manage at first. When using A.N. it is suggested that you use only RO water and add 1-200 ppms of SensiCal to pre-condition the solution with all the base nutrients necessary.
If looking for heavy yields of your favorite fruit or flower we suggest using Connoisseur A+B for Bloom. Connisseur is the most premium nutrient system we have seen. It is made from phamaceutical grade minerals which have been either individually amino chealted or chealted with the most expensive chemical chealtes(such as EDDHA). On top of that, they have new technology in the form of Polyamino alcohols whch increase the elasticity of the cell membrane allowing for more nutrients to be absorbed and thus digested. This provides for explosive growth and yield. For an even better cocktail (for the more advanced grower) try splitting your ppms of “nutrient” (The remaining ppms left over after adding ALL additives between Connoisseur. This provides the benefits of Connoisseur and the flavor and aroma of organics.
BigBud and OverDrive are premium Bloom enhancing products that have uniques levels of P & K for the appropriate stages of the Fruit and Flowering phase. (Piranha, Tarantula, and Voodoo Juice are three beneficial microbe solutions that greatly increase root mass and thus yields) Carboload is an excellent food source for there beneficials. SensiZym is a strong digestive enzyme solution that will help the plant by degrading dead or dying root systems and feed them back to the plant and the beneficial microbes keeping them away from any pathogens. Mother Earth Tea brings in the organic edge for more tasty fruit flavors and intense aroma. Humic and Fulvic greatly help with water and nutrient uptake, availability, and retention.
Budswel-A solution comprised of Bat Guano and Earthworm Castings. This solution has been around for quite a long while, and many people swear by it. The organic enzymes and hormones contained in this powerful solution will help promote more aroma, sugars, oils, and resins-“to the max.”
Rainbow Mix Bloom– 1% N 9% P 2% K; A natural-organic granular fertilizer formulated to encourage a profusion of flowers and abundant yields or fruits and veggies…naturally. Formulated from all organic sources;bat guano, sea kelp meal, steamed bone meal, langbeinite, soft rock phosphate, feather meal, cottonseed meal, and natural potash.
Primal Harvest– 0-12-1 Total phosphate 30%- Available phosphate 12% with trace minerals. Naturally formulated with no nitrogen & high phosphorous to focus the plant’s energy on the production of flowers, fruit and veggies..not on excessive leafy growth. Apply prior to & during budding, flowering & fruiting. Both Peletized and Soluble.
Sunleaves Jamaican Bat Guano- 1-10-.2 gives blooming flowers and ripening fruits a boost by heightening root and bud development. Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI), Jamaican Bat Guano is safe for use indoors and out and is non-toxic to people and pets. Amend your soild with it, use it as a top dressing or create a guano tea and apply it directly to plant roots in a fortified water dilution.
Sunleaves Peruvian Seabird Guano– High in the nutrients needed for every stage of plant growth, Sunleaves Peruvian Seabird Guano (10-10-2) is an excellent all-purpose fertilizer. All-natural with no chemical additives, Peruvian Seabird Guano is listed by the OMRI and safe for use indoors and out. Nothing like it for accelerating growth, Peruvian Seabird Guano is pelletized and will last the whole crop long.
Sunleaves Indonesian Seabird Guano– Perfect for encouraging multiple blooms and hardy root growth, phosphorus-rich Sunleaves Indonesian Bat Guano (.5-12-.2) is all natural and suitable for use indoors and out. It is a natural balance in the garden without increasing soil salt content or acidity.
Other Bloom Stimulants
BigBud– Big Bud has been extensively researched, developed and field tested. Big Bud is extremly plant specific- the ony one of its king in the world. The reason for this is Big Bud’s plant specific ratios of Phosphorous, Potassium, Magnesium, and Amino acids. This is to be used during week 2-5 of an 8 week bloom.
Overdrive-Overdrive is an ultra premium flower booster with an extremly extensive and very complex array of phosphorus and potassium sources. Hormones and catalytic agents are added in order to pack on extra girth and weight that produce unparalleled flower and oil production during the critical last weeks of flowering.
Traditionally, the three “major plant nutrients” were thought to be Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK). Recent studies on Calcium have proven it to be just as important as “The Big 3.” First off, calcium is an essential part of plant cell wall structure. The more calcium present, the stronger and thicker the cell wall will be. In addition to its role in cell structure, Calcium also plays a role in regulating various cell and plant functions as a secondary messenger/co-factor. In this way Calcium assists in various plant functions including nutrient uptake. Magnesium goes hand in hand with Calcium. Although not as important, magnesium is part of the chlorophyll in all green plants and essential for photosynthesis. Magnesium also helps to activate specific enzyme systems. Both calcium and magnesium are two of the most common deficiencies(especially when using RO water) adn need to be addressed and dealt with quickly when diagnosed.